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5% Discount on Legal Highs, Salvia Divinorum and Everything Else From The Coffeesh0p

I Finally Updated My Old Legal Highs Banner

I thought it was about time for a new version of my old, poor quality legal highs banner, which, if you’re at all interested in legal highs, you’d probably recognise in some shape or form. Pretty much everything in the original pic was banned years ago, which means it’s no longer a photo of legal highs at all, but an image whose every pixel portrays misinformation, lies and irrelevance.

Take that, Instagram hipsters! Three bleak, abstract concepts portrayed in a single shot without even trying.

I wonder though… If my original image has been rendered totally obsolete by the government waving their banning-stick all over the place, perhaps I should try file a claim for damages relating to the total devaluation of my intellectual property? OR… I could harness that bitter, twisted rage that burns deep down inside me and channel it into something positively creative, such as – oh, I don’t know – a new, up-to-date image to replace the previous one.

Here’s Legal Highs mk II then –  featuring the hottest products as of Jan 2015 as well as far superior image quality:

Legal High incense products

Additional details, metadata, etc can be found on the following Coffeesh0p blog entry: Coffesh0p Blog – Updated Legal Highs Photo

And of course, all the products are available in the Legal Highs > Incense category.

#nofilter #selfIndulgentPrick #totalPrentenciousness


Posted in Drugs, Legislation | Tagged coffeesh0p, incense, legal highs, photography |

New Salvia Extraction Guide

I recently rewrote the old “How To Make Salvia Divinorum Extract” blog post and turned it into something better. My old post, albeit very popular, lacked pictures and a few points could have clarified a little better.

In this new guide, there are 39 pictures from start to finish, leaving nothing to the imagination. The old blog post also talked about how you can jiggle the numbers round a bit to suit your own extraction procedure – well, this guide does it for you with the help of some interactive sliders. Not only will it calculate the final weight of extract you’ll end up with from the amount of leaves you have and the strength of extract you want to make, it also updates the article text throughout to give you relevant instructions based on the quantities you enter. :O

So, here it is: How To Make Salvia Extract

Do let me know what you think! Any feedback, please leave it in the comments here..

Posted in Drugs |

I Might Be On Crack

Ok, I’m not really on crack, but that’s what it may seem like given how ridiculous the prize is for Coffeesh0p’s February Competition.

(How’s that for maximum marketing hype?).

Posted in Drugs |

Where I’ve Been; What I’m Up To

Where I’ve Been

Well, I’ve obviously not been round here much. That’s because Jo & I have had zero free time thanks to our new baby – Felix is his name, and he’s now 6 months old. Anyone who follows my Flickr will have already been inundated with photos.

What I’ve Been Doing

I’ve just about managed to find a bit of time from somewhere to write a couple of posts on the Coffeesh0p Blog. Here are a couple of posts you might find interesting:

I hope to do at least a few more posts along those lines, so keep an eye out.

I’ve also just set up a Coffeesh0p Facebook Page. Currently, there’s a 10% off coupon code on there and a mini photo competition you can get involved with to win some freebies. If you use Facebook, you’d be doing me a favour by Liking our page – who knows, you may even enjoy it!.

Posted in Synchronium | Tagged coffeesh0p, facebook, research, salvia divinorum |

Entheogens In A New Light

Hi folks,

As is probably obvious, I’ve taken a little break from blogging regularly to focus on my photography. So I thought today, I’d combine the two. I’ve taken some rather nice shots of some of our most interesting-looking entheogens and posted them below. Clicking on them will open them full size so you can see all the detail.

Mexican Dream Herb

Mexican Dream HerbMexican Dream Herb Closeup

Wild Dagga

Wild DaggaWild Dagga Closeup

Inebriating Mint

Inebriating MintInebriating Mint Closeup

Blue Lotus

Blue Lotus
Blue Lotus Closeup

Peruvian Torch

Peruvian TorchPeruvian Torch Closeup

Red Clover

Red CloverRed Clover Closeup


KannaKanna Closeup

Rose Petals

Rose PetalsRose Petals Closeup.

Posted in Drugs | Tagged blue lotus, entheogens, inebriating mint, kanna, mexican dream herb, peruvian torch, photography, red clover, rose petals, wild dagga |


It’s always exciting when a drug is banned, but the recent announcement by the Home Office concerning the imminent banning of the former ‘legal high’ methoxetamine set unprecedented levels of excitement and confusion by making it a new kind of illegal.

Under the previous system, if the British Government wanted to ban a drug, they had to consult their gaggle of scientists, doctors and other assorted experts collectively known as the ACMD, ignore their views, sack them for objecting to being ignored, appoint a new panel and then do what they were always going to do by banning the drug anyway. This circumvented cumbersome bureaucracy, and also allowed ministers to transcend any remaining ties to objective reality by applying such bans to chemicals the existence, let alone the effects, of which had not yet been proven.

Methoxetamine, purportedly synthesised by the intentionally mysterious underground chemist ‘M’, has emerged in the past two years as a “bladder-friendly” alternative to ketamine, but is more widely known for raising the stupid-drug-name bar which everyone thought had peaked with “meow meow”, being dubbed “mexxy” and “roflcoptr”. Needless to say, the putative toxicology information presented to promote the drug is highly questionable, as should be obvious

More recently methoxetamine has got the British tabloid press frothing after its alleged involvement in the death of two people. Needless to say the postmortem revealed both had methoxetamine and alcohol in their blood at the time of death. At the time of writing, no move has been made to ban alcohol.

Methoxetamine is the first substance to be banned under what’s called a ‘temporary class drug order’, a new measure enshrined in legislation in November 201. Making a substance subject to an order effectively bans it for 12 months, offering the government the welcome opportunity to ban the banned drug all over again in a years’ time.


Police Officer
“Yes! Even more crimes to solve!”


This isn’t how they put it. In their words the introduction of an order is to allow time for the ACMD to perform tests and decide whether it should be permanently controlled. During this time the manufacture, supply and consumption of such a substance subject to an order, the effects and impact of which are necessarily unknown, is punishable by prison sentences up to 14 years and an unlimited fine, the current penalty imposed for supplying class B drugs such as amphetamines.

But perhaps after said testing period the ban might be lifted? Current Home Secretary Theresa May recently announced in somewhat less than neutral terms, an upcoming review of legislation concerning ketamine, stating that the review was prompted by “heightened public concern about the popularity and potential harms of ketamine” and considering the last major report into the legal status of a controlled substance resulted in cannabis being re-upgraded to a class B drug against the advise of the ACMD, it is looking unlikely that a radical rethink of drug-policy is taking place by our elected leaders in Westminster Palace.

This time the ACMD implicitly admit that methoxetamine appears to be more dangerous than ketamine and with the review of ketamine looking likely to result in an upgrading, the carefully charged words spoken at the start of the ban set the tone for when in 12 months time, methoxetamine is permanently controlled.
Since ketamine was made a class C drug in 2006, its use has risen dramatically indicating that the ban has made no impact on use and has actively driven people onto what the ACMD believe is an even more harmful drug, methoxetamine. As such, the decision not to let methoxetamine remain legal will, at best, have no impact on trends of use and at worst drive users to increasingly unsafe substances.

This seems as good a time as ever to remind you that prior to his election, David Cameron actively spoke out against the absurdity of the war on drugs. I await his intervention on this matter imminently.

[This article was written for by slicedmind, who runs an esoteric music blog here and, well, lets just say, owes me big time.].

Posted in Legislation | Tagged ACMD, legal highs, Legislation, methoxetamine, mexxy |

Photography II

I’ve created a page that automatically updates with my most recent photos on Flickr. There’s now a link to it at the top of every page, or you can get to it here: Photography.

Posted in Synchronium | Tagged photography |


Hi there!

These past several months have seen me busier than ever with mountain after mountain of business-related crap to climb; each bite-size chunk of finance-related bullshit being as boring to write about as it is to chew through, so I’ll spare any further details.

As I’ve mentioned before, Coffeesh0p is about to relaunch after being completely overhauled. This also means a tonne of new products and a tonne of new pictures to be taken for the site. Turns out it would cost far more to get someone else to take these photos than the cost of a new camera, so  in the interest of fiscal responsibility, I’m now “into photography”.

There’ll be lots of great product photos on the new site when it launches, but in the mean time, here’s some of my favourite photos taken in a personal capacity (click each for a larger version):

The University of Birmingham

Pylon & substation

Green & purple laser

Lake at night

Amanita muscaria

Hyde Park, London

Birmingham Christmas Market

If you think they’re not shit, there are loads more here:

As always, your opinions welcome in the comments below..

Posted in Drugs |

Squidgy Black

To celebrate the long-awaited return of Coffeesh0p‘s Squidgy Black incense, I thought I’d share a nice high resolution photograph of it (click to enlarge):

Squidgy Black

(Until 3 PM tomorrow (Monday afternoon), we’re giving away 1g samples with all orders over £30).

Posted in Internet Marketing | Tagged coffeesh0p, incense, legal highs, Squidgy Black |

Ivory Wave Destined For Class B

Or at least that’s how the media will inevitably simplify it for all you plebs out there, who couldn’t possibly need to know, let alone understand, the exact wording of the law. On the 13th of September, everyone’s favourite council of advisors, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) released their report on Desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), including advice for another broad analogue ban similar to the bans of the cathinones & cannabinoids in the not too distant past.

Here’s the first part of the report, formatted and presented in lovely HTML (Annex 2 will be posted up soon.):

Consideration of Desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) and related pipradrol compounds

Letter To The Home Secretary From The ACMD

13th September 2011Dear Home Secretary,

I write further to my correspondence of 29 October 2010 in relation to the compound desoxypipradrol (2-diphenylmethyl-piperidine, 2-DPMP). In its advice the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) recommended that desoxypipradrol, identified in samples of a product known as „Ivory Wave?, should be subject to an immediate ban under the Open General Import Licence. This advice was accepted by the Government and a ban was implemented on 4 November 2011.

The ACMD has considered the available evidence and can now provide you with substantive consideration of the compound desoxypipradrol and its related compounds. A short report is annexed to this letter.

The National Poisons Information Service in Edinburgh highlighted that a number of individuals had presented to the Royal Edinburgh Infirmary in the summer of 2010 following use of desoxypipradrol with symptoms that were similar to amphetamine toxicity, but with predominant neuropsychiatric features including:

  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Severe Agitation

In some cases these effects persisted for several days after ingestion.

In the attached report the ACMD has considered the available evidence from forensic providers, the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths, Clinical Toxicology Services, scientific research and Government Departments on the harms and sales of desoxypipradrol.

The ACMD advises that the harms of desoxypipradrol are commensurate with other Class B drugs and recommend that it is controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 as a Class B substance and in Schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 (as amended). In addition, the ACMD recommends that the structurally related compounds diphenylprolinol (diphenyl-2- pyrrolidinyl-methanol, D2PM) and its desoxy form 2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine are controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 as Class B substances and scheduled under the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001. The proposed generic definition will ensure that desoxypipradrol and all its related compounds, e.g. diphenylprolinol and diphenylmethylpyrrolidine, are fully captured (see Annex 1 & 2). The ACMD understands that desoxypipradrol and its related compounds do not have any medicinal uses; however, the ACMD has not formally consulted with the industry.

The ACMD believes that there would be no conflicting issues with placing the generic definition in the Act as the three main drugs, desoxypipradrol, diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and 2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine can all be analytically distinguished from one another and from other drugs in Schedule 2 Part II.

The positional isomers of pipradrol (diphenyl-2-piperidinemethanol), i.e. the diphenyl-3-piperidinemethanol and diphenyl-4- piperidinemethanol isomers would be Class B and in the absence of reference standards may not be readily distinguished from pipradrol (Class C) using routine methods of analysis (medicinal products containing pipradrol are no longer widely used and are not, as far as the ACMD are aware, available in the UK). Whilst, it should be possible to distinguish between pipradrol isomers using techniques such as NMR, in the long term it would be support forensic analysis to have reference standards of all the pipradrol positional isomers.

The ACMD recommends that the Home Office considers commissioning the production of standards through the Forensic Early Warning System.

Yours sincerely,

Professor Les Iversen FRS

(cc: Anne Milton – Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Department of Health)

1. Background

In October 2010 the ACMD recommended to the Government that, 2- diphenylmethyl-piperidine (2-DPMP, here referred to as desoxypipradrol), which was being marketed at that time as “Ivory Wave”, should be subject to an immediate ban under the Open General Import Licence (OGIL). This advice was accepted by the Government and a ban was implemented on 4 November 2011

Published data on the effects of 2-DPMP are limited, although research on derivatives of desoxypipradrol show that they exhibit a cocaine-like binding profile (Schmitt et al., 2008).

Currently, there is no known medicinal use for this compound, although it was originally developed by Ciba-Geigy (Novartis) in 1953 to be used to wake patients following anaesthesia (Belucci, 1955).

Desoxypipradrol & Pipradrol

This compound is related to pipradrol, a previously-licensed medicine for treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), obesity and narcolepsy. Pipradrol is classified under the Misuse of Drugs Act as a Class C substance. Pipradrol still used is some countries, but its use is limited due to its abuse potential; it is a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

Pipradrol and its desoxy form have structurally related pyrrolidine analogues (see below) such as diphenylprolinol (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethanol, D2PM), for which there have been a number of recorded cases of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric toxicity associated with recreational use (Lidder et al., 2008, Wood et al., 2008, Wood et al., 2011), and 2-diphenylmethyl-pyrrolidine, currently marketed, along with D2PM and various analogues, as chemical reagents for use as chiral catalysts in organic synthesis (Bertelsen et al., 2005, Sigma-Aldrich, 2007).


The two pairs of materials differ only by the size of the nitrogen-containing ring. Diphenylprolinol and its desoxy form have a five-membered (pyrrolidine) ring, while pipradrol and its desoxy form have a six-membered (piperidine) ring. It seems that the two desoxy forms have particularly long-lasting effects as their structures are resistant to metabolism, meaning that they have longer half-lives in the body. A common feature of these compounds is that they are structurally related to ß-phenylmethylamphetamine, which is also a potent stimulant with a long half life. However, these compounds differ from ß-phenylmethylamphetamine in that the nitrogen atom is linked to the a- methyl group by two or three carbon atoms to form a ring.

Pipradrol Analogues

Various analogues of these compounds have been investigated and found to have stimulant properties (Isbell, 1970 and US Patents). Simple modifications, for example, addition of halogen, alkyl or alkoxy groups on one or both of the phenyl rings or addition of alkyl, alkenyl, haloalkyl and hydroxyalkyl groups on the nitrogen atom have been reported to produce compounds having a stimulant effect on the CNS, which could lead to a range of “designer” forms.

Other modifications that have been reported in the literature include replacing the piperidine ring with an azepane ring (7-membered ring), a morpholine ring or a pyridine ring (Winthrop, 1961; Enyedy, 2003). The piperidine ring has also been modified by substitution in the ring with an hydroxy group (Nodine, 1960), fusion of the piperidine ring with a benzene ring (Winthrop, 1961) and by substitution at the nitrogen atom with an ethano bridge to form a bicyclic ring system (Wikipedia, 2011).

Almost all of the analogues investigated are structurally related to the 2-isomer of desoxypipradrol, with 2 carbon atoms between the phenyl rings and the nitrogen atom. The only exceptions being the N-haloalkyl derivatives of desoxypipradrol and the pyridine analogue in which the 2-, 3- and 4- isomers were all reported to be active. No examples were found of compounds related to 1-diphenylmethylpiperidine (N-diphenylmethyl- piperidine).

Whilst, it should be possible to distinguish between pipradrol isomers using techniques such as NMR, in the long term it would be support forensic analysis to have reference standards of all the pipradrol positional isomers. The ACMD recommends that the Home Office considers commissioning the production of standards through the Forensic Early Warning System.

2. Use and prevalence

The National Poisons Information Service in Edinburgh highlighted that a number of individuals had presented to the Royal Edinburgh Infirmary in the summer of 2010 following their use of desoxypipradrol with symptoms that were similar to amphetamine toxicity, but with predominant neuropsychiatric features including:

  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Severe Agitation

In some patients the symptoms were still being manifested 5-7 days after ingestion and some patients presented directly to psychiatric services, bypassing A&E. There were approximately 12 cases over this period. It was subsequently reported that 4 out of 5 of the Edinburgh cases in whom confirmatory toxicological screening was carried out were positive for desoxypipradrol in urine/blood confirming exposure.

The number of patients presenting after confirmed ingestion of desoxypipradrol after the summer of 2010 has dramatically reduced in Edinburgh with no cases in 2011 and data from the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) suggests that there has also been a significant reduction nationally. However, as noted below cases of diphenylprolinol (D2PM) toxicity continue to occur.

So far 3 deaths have been linked to the use of desoxypipradrolb(awaiting final reports).

Data provided by the Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST) under its Forensic Early Warning System (FEWS) reported one sample of 2-DPMP (from a head-shop), 10 samples of D2PM and 4 samples of desoxy-D2PM (from test purchases) during the pilot study.

LGC Forensics reported those samples of “Ivory Wave” it had seen in 2009-2011 contained different active ingredients including the cathinone MDPV (methylenedioxypyrovalerone) then, after this became controlled, naphyrone, and when this too was controlled, desoxypipradrol. More recently, diphenylprolinol has begun to appear in “legal high” products.

Desoxypipradrol has been found as a white powder that is generally taken by nasal insufflation (sniffing the powder into the nose) or swallowing after wrapping the powder in a cigarette paper (“bombing”) to avoid any unpleasant taste.

It is considered that 2-DPMP and its related compounds, as captured under the generic definition (see recommendation), have potential social harms. It appears to the ACMD that such harms are likely in relation to the impairment of function through drug use (mood disorders, changes to lifestyle), loss of relationships and the potential harm to others (directly and indirectly).

3. Preclinical Data

In the 1950’s, Ciba-Geigy investigated the effects of desoxypipradrol, amphetamine and d-methylamphetamine on small animals (report kindly provided by Novartis). The LD50 is the dose, which kills 50% of the animals:

Table 1. Toxicity of desoxypipradrol and other compounds, measured as LD50, to small animals.

LD50 g/kg
LD50 g/kg
LD50 g/kg
Mouse iv*0.0200.0500.020
” sc0.0470.0600.080
” po0.0500.0700.150
Rat iv0.0150.0120.023
” sc0.0300.0120.015
” po0.0800.0130.025
Rab­bit iv0.0060.0400.030
” sc0.0070.0450.020
” po0.0800.1700.200

(*iv – intravenous, sc – subcutaneous, po – orally)Table 1 shows that desoxypipradrol is, in many cases, more toxic than amphetamine and d-methylamphetamine.

The Ciba-Geigy report (from the 1950s) also noted that desoxypipradrol:

produced a marked central arousal in various, non-anaesthetised animals, consisting initially of general agitation, subsequently a greater degree of increase in co-ordinated motility, heightened reflexes, compelled movements and relatively slight respiratory stimulation.

This was easily discernible objectively in the normal mouse with the aid of the cage movement registration method. With this method the individual movements are registered directly and added up by means of a totaliser.

Figure 1. Effectiveness of desoxypipradrol in stimulating activity in mice when when administered subcutaneously (heavy line) or orally (thin line)
(Figure reproduced with kind permission of Novartis)

The data show that desoxypipradrol is effective as a stimulant in doses comparable to those for amphetamine or methylamphetamine – from 1 mg/kg upwards. For the purposes of its research at the time, Novartis recommended an initial human dose of 1mg or less, (ca 0.014 mg/kg). Anecdotal information would suggest that the human dose is only a few mg, with 10mg or more being considered harmful.

Experimental data supplied by Dr Colin Davidson (St Georges, University of London, 2011) demonstrated that desoxypipradrol potently stimulated dopamine release from rat brain slices in vitro. Dopamine release was measured from the region of the nucleus accumbens, using carbon fibre microelectrodes and fast cyclic voltammetry to electrically measure the oxidations of dopamine. The rate of recovery of stimulated dopamine release also allowed measurement of the action of the drug as an inhibitor of the dopamine reuptake mechanism. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is considered to be a key target for psychostimulant drugs.

Figure 2. Effect of desoxypipradrol (10uM) on dopamine efflux in rat nucleus accumbens

It also proved possible to compare the potency of desoxypipradrol with the psychostimulant drug cocaine in the brain slice preparation. The results (Figure 3) indicate that desoxypipradrol is both more effective and more potent than cocaine in stimulating dopamine release and in inhibiting its reuptake.

Figure 3. Comparison of potencies of desoxypipradrol and cocaine in releasing dopamine, and inhibiting inactivation in rat brain slice preparations (C. Davidson, unpublished)

The results both from Novartis and from Dr Davidson indicate that desoxypipradrol is very potent and comparable to amphetamine or methylamphetamine in its potential to cause acute toxicity.

The available human data also show it to be a long-lasting substance, capable of eliciting agitation lasting for several days after a single dose.

In addition to the reports of toxicity associated with the use of desoxypipradrol noted above, there have also been reports of significant toxicity associated with the recreational use of the related compound diphenylprolinol (D2PM). In addition, reports from forensic providers suggest that D2PM has replaced desoxypipradrol in many “Ivory Wave” products. The clinical toxicology service at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital in London have documented 6 cases of analytically confirmed D2PM toxicity: 1 case in 2008 and 5 cases in 2010 / 2011 (Lidder et al., 2008, Wood et al., 2008, Wood et al., 2011). In these cases patients have presented with a variety of symptoms including:

  • chest pain
  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • insomnia
  • hallucinations
  • paranoia

In many of these cases patients have had ongoing features, in particular neuro-psychiatric features such as anxiety, insomnia and paranoia for up to 48-96 hours after use of D2PM.

4. Recommendation

The ACMD advises that the harms of desoxypipradrol are commensurate with other Class B drugs and recommend that it is controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 as a Class B substance and in Schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 (as amended). Furthermore, we recommend that the structurally related compounds diphenylprolinol (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinyl-methanol, D2PM) and its desoxy form 2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine are similarly controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and scheduled under the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 by virtue of a generic definition (see Annex 1 of the report) to ensure that desoxypipradrol and related compounds, e.g. diphenylprolinol, diphenylmethylpyrrolidine, are fully captured (see Annex 1 & 2).

The ACMD understands that desoxypipradrol and its related compounds do not have any medicinal uses; however, the ACMD has not formally consulted with the industry.

The proposed generic definition includes desoxypipradrol and those analogues most likely to be produced as alternatives. Some of the compounds that fall within the scope of the proposed generic definition contain a hydroxy group, which can be converted to an ester or ether. Such compounds may have similar pharmacological properties to the parent compound and therefore it is recommended that esters and ethers of these compounds are also subject to control under the Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971.

Whilst, ideally, any generic definition would include all possible positional isomers, this may mean that non-active compounds would also be controlled. Further, a definition to cover all of these potential analogues is feasible, but it would be very complex and possibly difficult to understand.

Under the definition that the ACMD propose at Annex 1 esters and ethers of pipradrol would not be controlled. This is because pipradrol is specifically excluded from the generic definition and therefore paragraph 2A would also not apply to pipradrol. For consistency the ACMD advise the inclusion of esters and ethers of pipradrol by moving pipradrol from Schedule 2 Part III paragraph 1(a) to paragraph 1(b) so that paragraph 1(d) regarding esters or ethers would apply to pipradrol.

The ACMD further advise that stereoisomers should be controlled by Schedule 2 Part II paragraph 2. The three main drugs, desoxypipradrol, diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and
2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine all have stereoisomers and most of the compounds covered by the generic definition will also have stereoisomers.

5. References

  1. Bellucci G. (1955); (2-Diphenylmethyl-piperidine hydrochloride and the methyl ester of 2-chloro-2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)-acetic acid), drugs with waking effect in anaesthesia. Minerva Anestesiologica 21: 125–8.
  2. Bertelsen S, Halland N, Bachmann S, Marigo M, Braunton A, Jørgensen KA. (2005); Organocatalytic asymmetric a-bromination of aldehydes and ketones. Chemical Communications 4821-4823.
  3. Enyedy IJ, Sakamuri S, Zaman WA, Johnson KM, Wang S. (2003); Pharmacophore-based discovery of substituted pyridines as novel dopamine transporter inhibitors. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters;13:513–517.
  4. Hoffmann K, Heer J. (1958); 2-Diphenylmethyl-piperidine compounds. US Patent 2,826,583.
  5. Hoffmann K, Heer J. (1958); Piperidines and their manufacture. US Patent 2,849,453.
  6. Hoffman K. (1962); 1-Ethyl-2-diphenylmethyl-piperidines. US Patent 3,048,594.
  7. Hoffmann K, Heer J. (1960); Substituted 2-diphenylmethyl-piperidine compounds. US Patent 2,957,879.
  8. Isbell H, Chrusciel TS. (1970); Dependence Liability of Non-Narcotic Drugs. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation; 43: Supplement, pages 76-77.
  9. Lidder S, Dargan P, Sexton M, Button J, Ramsey J, Holt D, Wood D. (2008); Cardiovascular toxicity associated with recreational use of diphenylprolinol (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol [D2PM]). Journal of Medical Toxicology; 4(3):167-9.
  10. Nodine JH, Bodi T, Slap J, Levy HA, Siegler PE. (1960); Preliminary trial of a new stimulant SCH 5472 in ambulatory patients with depression, exhaustion, or hypersomnia syndrome. Antibiotic Medicine and Clinical Therapy ; 7:771-6.
  11. Novartis (1955) Information on Prep. No. 14?469 (desoxypipradrol), a new synthetic stimulant with central point of application.
  12. Schmitt KC, Zhen J, Kharkar P, Mishra M, Chen N, Dutta AK, Reith ME. (2008); Interaction of cocaine-, benztropine-, and GBR12909-like compounds with wild-type and mutant human dopamine transporters: molecular features that differentially determine antagonist-binding properties; Journal of Neurochemistry 107: 928-40.
  13. Sigma-Aldrich Co. (2007) “Organocatalysis”, Chemistry files, vol 7, No.
  14. Wikipedia entry for AL-1095. <>; 2011 [accessed 25.08.11].
  15. Winthrop SO. (1960) a-(3-Morpholyl)-benzhydrol and its salts. US Patent 2,947,749.
  16. Winthrop SO. (1961); 3-Benzhydrylmorpholine and salts thereof, and method of preparing said compounds. US Patent 2,993,895.
  17. Winthrop SO, Humber LG. (1961); Central Stimulants. Cyclized Diphenylisopropylamines. Journal of Organic Chemistry 26: 2834-6.
  18. Wood DM, Davies S, Puchnarewicz, Holt DW, Dargan PI. A case series of individuals with analytically confirmed acute diphenyl-2- pyrrolidinemethanol (D2PM) toxicity. Manuscript submitted for publication.
  19. Wood DM, Puchnarewicz M, Holt DW, Ramsey J, Dargan PI. (2011); Detection of the precursor benzophenone in individuals who have used legal highs containing diphenyl-2-pyyrrolidinemethanol (D2PM). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology; 109 (Suppl. 1): 86.

Annex 1

Proposed generic definition

Any compound (not being pipradrol) structurally derived from piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, morpholine or pyridine by substitution on a ring carbon atom with a diphenylmethyl group, whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways, that is to say,

  1. by substitution in any of the phenyl rings to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl or halide groups;
  2. by substitution on the methyl carbon atom with an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl or hydroxy group;
  3. by substitution on the ring nitrogen atom with an alkyl, alkenyl, haloalkyl or hydroxyalkyl group.


Posted in Drugs, Legislation |